Schulte G. An Overview of Pharmaceutical Smuggling Cases in San Diego: It Goes Better When Agencies Work Together. J Biolaw Bus. 2006;9(4):41-45.

The U.S. Customs Service and its successor agency U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which is now located within the Department of Homeland Security, have conducted investigations into the illegal importation of unapproved and counterfeit pharmaceuticals for decades. Other federal and state agencies have conducted similar investigations. Advances in technology have created an increasingly favorable climate for such crime. In response, law enforcement agencies on the federal and state level will have to work more closely with each other and with various regulatory agencies, foreign governments, private industry trademark holders, and consumers to address this public health and intellectual property issue.