Abstract Poor-quality antimalarial drugs lead to drug resistance and inadequate treatment, which pose an urgent threat to vulnerable populations and jeopardize progress and investments in combating malaria. Emergence of artemisinin resistance or tolerance in Plasmodium falciparum on the Thailand—Cambodia border makes protection of the effectiveness of the drug supply imperative. We reviewed published and unpublished…

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Abstract Background Monitoring resistance phenotypes for Plasmodium falciparum, using in vitro growth assays, and relating findings to parasite genotype has proved particularly challenging for the study of resistance to artemisinins. Methods Plasmodium falciparum isolates cultured from 28 returning travellers diagnosed with malaria were assessed for sensitivity to artemisinin, artemether, dihydroartemisinin and artesunate and findings related…

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and…

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OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into the pharmaceutical grey market in Iran by reviewing inspection files of the Special Inspectorate Unit, Deputy Ministry for Food and Drugs, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and to define the counterfeit pharmaceutical pattern in Iran. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective study. METHODS: In total, 382 inspection files of pharmaceutical counterfeit…

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Abstract BACKGROUND: For patients, the prescription container label may be the only source of instructions on how to take their medicines. In the United States, the legal requirements for a prescription label are set by federal law and state statutes. The container should be comparable to that which manufacturers use to package drug products and…

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Abstract.
Objectives To investigate the state of health economic research in Russia available in the English language by describing the number and characteristics of the articles, and assessing the quality of these articles.

Methods The study assessed the state of health economics and pharmacoeconomics research in Russia. We conducted a literature search to identify health economics articles pertaining to Russia. Each article in the final sample was scored by two reviewers independently using the data-collection form designed for the study.

Key findings In total, 16 studies investigating a wide variety of diseases were included in the study. These articles were published in 15 different journals all based outside of Russia between 1994 and 2009. On average, each article was written by seven authors. Most first authors had medical/clinical training and resided in the USA (n = 8) at the time of publication of the study. Based on a scale of 1–10, with 10 indicating the highest quality, the mean quality score for all studies was 8.09 (SD = 1.29) and 25% of the articles were of fair quality (score 5–7). The quality of articles was statistically significantly related (P < 0.05) to the primary health intervention (pharmaceuticals > non-pharmaceuticals) and primary training of the first author (medical > non-medical).

Conclusions The conduct of health economics and pharmacoeconomics research in Russia in the English language is limited and, on average, the published articles were of good quality. However, about one-quarter of published articles were of fair quality. More health economics research in English is warranted in Russia.

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Every day, law enforcement officers throughout the United States are engaged in court authorized searches of persons, vehicles, homes and businesses. On occasion, during these searches, officers are surprised at what they uncover. For in some of the most unlikely places, their searches have disclosed the most advanced medicines – biologics, pharmaceuticals products critical to…

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Abstract. Objective: To determine the average payment time from Medicare Part D plans to
community pharmacies for prescription drugs dispensed to Medicare beneficiaries.
Design: Nonexperimental time series.
Setting: United States in January to December 2006.
Participants: 145 independent pharmacies and 17 regional chain pharmacy firms.
Intervention: Review of 2,944,526 Medicare Part D prescription drug claims
adjudicated in 2006.
Main outcome measures: Median payment time and the number and proportion
of claims paid, controlling for month of claim adjudication, pharmacy type, and Part
D plan.
Results: The median payment time for 2006 claims filed by all pharmacies in this
study was 29.0 days (mean 39.1). The median payment time was greater for independent
pharmacies (median 31.0, mean 49.1) than chain pharmacies (median 29.0, mean
36.5). Payment was slower during the first few months of the Medicare Part D benefit
than later in the year. By December, approximately 40% of the claims were not paid
within 30 days. Within the 12 plans identified as having the greatest number of claims
in the sample, the median payment time ranged from 23.0 days to 36.0 days.
Conclusion: Payment times improved during 2006, but a sizable proportion of
claims were not paid within 30 days. Chain pharmacies received payments sooner than
independent pharmacies. Additionally, a wide variation in median payment times was
observed for Part D plans. The results of this study, based on actual claims data, are
not in agreement with findings from a survey of Part D plans reported by the Centers
for Medicare & Medicaid Services.
Keywords: Medicare Part D, prescription drug plans, payment systems.

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